Every year globally, an estimated four million babies die before they reach the age of one month. Nearly the same numbers die in late pregnancy or are stillborn and these deaths are rarely recorded. Millions more are disabled because of poorly managed pregnancies, deliveries and neonatal care. Deaths are far more likely to occur early in the neonatal period. This has been neatly summarized as the “two thirds rule” which states that approximately 2/3 of all deaths in the first year of life occurs in the first month of life. Of these deaths, approximately 2/3 occurs in the first week of life. Of these deaths, approximately 2/3 occurs in the first day of life.